Oil Refining Library
Petroleum Refining, Vol 3 Conversion Processes - by LEPRINCE Pierre
About this Book (Preface):-
The third volume of the "Petroleum Refining" collection deals with conversion processes for petroleum fractions as produced by the separation operations that are covered in the second volume. Conversion processes have three objectives:
• improve product quality so as to meet the requirements of the corresponding end use (e.g. heat engines, burners);
• convert crude oil fractions that can not directly find an outlet into products better adapted to the market;
• protect the natural environment during product manufacturing and utilization.
Following an introduction which shows the growing importance of conversion processes in the refining industry, this volume presents the fundamentals of the chemical mechanisms at the basis of the processes. These disciplines are thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, reactor calculation and industrial catalysts.
Then the major refining conversion processes are discussed. The first group of processes is designed to improve the quality of light fractions: catalytic reforming and isomerization. The second group involves the conversion of distillates: catalytic cracking and hydrocracking, along with their related units: alkylation, oligomerization and etherification. The third includes processes for converting residues: visbreaking, coking and hydroconversion with its related hydrogen production unit. Lastly, processes which deal with reducing air and water pollution: sweetening of white products and hydrotreating to eliminate sulfur and nitrogen compounds, sour gas treatments to remove hydrogen sulfide, desulfurization of heavy fuel oil combustion off gases and treatment of process water.
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