# Flow, Pressure Drop, K, Cv, Kv Converters

## INTRODUCTION

These are 6 tools to help in fluid flow simulation.

## 1- Pressure Drop (dP) Calculator

##### Given Flow, Density, Diameter, K fitting
 Flow Rate (Kg/hr): Density (kg/m3): Inside Diameter (mm): K fitting: Pressure Drop (bar):

## 2- K Fitting Calculator

##### Given Flow, Density, Diameter, Pressure Drop
 Flow Rate (Kg/hr): Density (kg/m3): Inside Diameter (mm): Pressure Drop (bar): K fitting:

## 3- Flow (F) Calculator

##### Given Density, Diameter, Pressure Drop, K Fitting
 Density (kg/m3): Inside Diameter (mm): Pressure Drop (bar): K fitting: Flow Rate (Kg/hr):

## 4- Cv to K & Kv Converter

 Inside Diameter (mm): Flow Coefficient (Cv): Resistance coefficient (K): Resistance coefficient (Kv):

## 5- K to Cv & Kv Converter

 Inside Diameter (mm): Resistance Coefficient (K): Flow coefficient (Cv): Resistance coefficient (Kv):

## 6- Kv to Cv & K Converter

 Inside Diameter (mm): Flow Coefficient (Kv): Flow coefficient (Cv): Resistance coefficient (K):

# Friction Loss Tables

Source:- https://www.plumbingsupply.com/ed-frictionlosses.html
Friction Losses in Pipe Fittings
Resistance Coefficient K (use in formula hf = Kv2/2g)
Fitting LD Nominal Pipe Size
1/2" 3/4" 1 1-1/4" 1-1/2" 2 2-1/2"-3 4 6 8-10 12-16 18-24
K Value
Angle Valve 55 1.48 1.38 1.27 1.21 1.16 1.05 0.99 0.94 0.83 0.77 0.72 0.66
Angle Valve 150 4.05 3.75 3.45 3.30 3.15 2.85 2.70 2.55 2.25 2.10 1.95 1.80
Ball Valve 3 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04
Butterfly Valve             0.86 0.81 0.77 0.68 0.63 0.35 0.30
Gate Valve 8 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.18 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.10
Globe Valve 340 9.2 8.5 7.8 7.5 7.1 6.5 6.1 5.8 5.1 4.8 4.4 4.1
Plug Valve Branch Flow 90 2.43 2.25 2.07 1.98 1.89 1.71 1.62 1.53 1.35 1.26 1.17 1.08
Plug Valve Straightaway 18 0.48 0.45 0.41 0.40 0.38 0.34 0.32 0.31 0.27 0.25 0.23 0.22
Plug Valve 3-Way Thru-Flow 30 0.81 0.75 0.69 0.66 0.63 0.57 0.54 0.51 0.45 0.42 0.39 0.36
Standard Elbow 90° 30 0.81 0.75 0.69 0.66 0.63 0.57 0.54 0.51 0.45 0.42 0.39 0.36
45° 16 0.43 0.40 0.37 0.35 0.34 0.30 0.29 0.27 0.24 0.22 0.21 0.19
90°
16 0.43 0.40 0.37 0.35 0.34 0.30 0.29 0.27 0.24 0.22 0.21 0.19
Close Return Bend 50 1.35 1.25 1.15 1.10 1.05 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60
Standard Tee Thru-Flow 20 0.54 0.50 0.46 0.44 0.42 0.38 0.36 0.34 0.30 0.28 0.26 0.24
Thru-Branch 60 1.62 1.50 1.38 1.32 1.26 1.14 1.08 1.02 0.90 0.84 0.78 0.72
90 Bends,
Pipe Bends,
Flanged Elbows,
Butt-Welded
Elbows
r/d=1 20 0.54 0.50 0.46 0.44 0.42 0.38 0.36 0.34 0.30 0.28 0.26 0.24
r/d=2 12 0.32 0.30 0.28 0.26 0.25 0.23 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.14
r/d=3 12 0.32 0.30 0.28 0.26 0.25 0.23 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.14
r/d=4 14 0.38 0.35 0.32 0.31 0.29 0.27 0.25 0.24 0.21 0.20 0.18 0.17
r/d=6 17 0.46 0.43 0.39 0.37 0.36 0.32 0.31 0.29 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.20
r/d=8 24 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.53 0.50 0.46 0.43 0.41 0.36 0.34 0.31 0.29
r/d=10 30 0.81 0.75 0.69 0.66 0.63 0.57 0.54 0.51 0.45 0.42 0.39 0.36
r/d=12 34 0.92 0.85 0.78 0.75 0.71 0.65 0.61 0.58 0.51 0.48 0.44 0.41
r/d=14 38 1.03 0.95 0.87 0.84 0.80 0.72 0.68 0.65 0.57 0.53 0.49 0.46
r/d=16 42 1.13 1.05 0.97 0.92 0.88 0.80 0.76 0.71 0.63 0.59 0.55 0.50
r/d=18 45 1.24 1.15 1.06 1.01 0.97 0.87 0.83 0.78 0.69 0.64 0.60 0.55
r/d=20 50 1.35 1.25 1.15 1.10 1.05 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60
Mitre Bends a=0° 2 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02
a=15° 4 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05
a=30° 8 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.10
a=45° 15 0.41 0.38 0.35 0.33 0.32 0.29 0.27 0.26 0.23 0.21 0.20 0.18
a=60° 25 0.68 0.63 0.58 0.55 0.53 0.48 0.45 0.43 0.38 0.35 0.33 0.30
a=75° 40 1.09 1.00 0.92 0.88 0.84 0.76 0.72 0.68 0.60 0.56 0.52 0.48
a=90° 60 1.62 1.50 1.38 1.32 1.26 1.14 1.08 1.02 0.90 0.84 0.78 0.72
Note: Fittings are standard with full openings.

Fitting L/D Minimum
Velocity for
Full Disc Lift
Nominal Pipe Size
1/2" 3/4" 1 1-1/4" 1-1/2" 2 2-1/2"-3 4 6 8-10 12-16 18-24
General
ft/sec
Water
ft/sec
K Value
Swing Check Valve 100 35 4.40 2.70 2.50 2.30 2.20 2.10 1.90 1.80 1.70 1.50 1.40 1.30 1.20
50 48 6.06 1.40 1.30 1.20 1.10 1.10 1.00 0.90 0.90 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60
Lift Check Valve 600 40 5.06 16.2 15.0 13.08 13.2 12.6 11.4 10.8 10.2 9.0 8.4 7.8 7.2
55 140 17.7 1.50 1.40 1.30 1.20 1.20 1.10 1.00 0.94 0.83 0.77 0.72 0.66
Tilting Disc Check Valve 5 80 10.13           0.76 0.72 0.68 0.60 0.56 0.39 0.24
15 30 3.80           2.30 2.20 2.00 1.80 1.70 1.20 0.72
Foot Valve with Strainer
Poppet Disc
420 15 1.90 11.3 10.5 9.70 9.30 8.80 8.00 7.60 7.10 6.30 5.90 5.50 5.0
Foot Valve with Strainer
Hinged Disc
75 35 4.43 2.00 1.90 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.40 1.40 1.30 1.10 1.10 1.00 0.90

Fitting Description All Pipe Sizes
K Value
Pipe Exit Projecting
Sharp-Edged
Rounded
1.00
Pipe Entrance Inward Projecting 0.78
Pipe Entrance Flush Sharp-Edged 0.50
r/d=0.02 0.28
r/d=0.04 0.24
r/d=0.06 0.15
r/d=0.10 0.09
r/d<0.14 0.04

The K values given below are for making estimates of friction loss in cases not covered in the previous tables.

Type of Fitting K Value
Disk or Wobble Meter 3.4 - 10
Rotary Meter (Star or Cog-Wheel Piston) 10
Reciprocating Piston Meter 15
Turbine Wheel (Double-Flow) Meter 5 - 7.5
Bends w/Corrugated Inner Radius 1.3 - 1.6 times value for smooth bend
Example: Determine L (friction loss in pipe fittings in terms of equivalent length
in feet of straight pipe).
Assume a 6" angle valve for Schedule 40 pipe size.
Select the appropriate K value for such and select D and f for Schedule 40 pipe
from the table below where K is the pipe diameter in feet.
Pipe Size
Inches
Sch. 40
D
feet
f Pipe Size
Inches
Sch. 40
D
feet
f Pipe Size
Inches
Sch. 40
D
feet
f Pipe Size
Inches
Sch. 40
D
feet
f
1/2"
3/4"
1
1-1/4"
1-1/2"
2
0.0518
0.0687
0.0874
0.1150
0.1342
0.1723
0.027
0.025
0.023
0.022
0.021
0.019
2-1/2"
3
4
5
6
8
0.2058
0.2557
0.3355
0.4206
0.5054
0.6651
0.018
0.018
0.017
0.016
0.015
0.014
10
12
14
16
18
20
0.8350
0.9948
1.0937
1.250
1.4063
1.5678
0.014
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.012
0.012
24
30
36
42
48
1.8857
2.3333
2.8333
3.3333
3.8333
0.012
0.011
0.011
0.010
0.010

Friction Loss of Water in Pipe Fittings in Terms of Equivalent
Length - Feet of Straight Pipe
Nominal
pipe size
Actual
inside
diameter
inches
d
Friction
factor
f
Gate
valve
-
full
open
90°
elbow
Long
90° or
45° sth
elbow
Sth
tee
-
thru
flow
Sth
tee
-
branch
flow
Close
return
bend
Swing
check
valve
-
full open
Angle
valve
-
full
open
Globe
valve
-
full
valve
Butter-
fly valve
90°Welding
elbow
Mitre bend
r/d = 1 r/d = 2 45° 90°
1/2"
3/4"
1
1-1/4"
1-1/2"
.622
.824
1.049
1.380
1.610
.027
.025
.023
.022
.021
.41
.55
.70
.92
1.07
1.55
2.06
2.62
3.45
4.03
.83
1.10
1.40
1.84
2.15
1.04
1.37
1.75
2.30
2.68
3.11
4.12
5.25
6.90
8.05
2.59
3.43
4.37
5.75
6.71
5.18
6.86
8.74
11.5
13.4
7.78
10.3
13.1
17.3
20.1
17.6
23.3
29.7
39.1
45.6

2
2-1/2"
3
4
5
2.067
2.469
3.068
4.026
5.047
.019
.018
.018
.017
.016
1.38
1.65
2.04
2.68
3.36
5.17
6.17
7.67
10.1
12.6
2.76
3.29
4.09
5.37
6.73
3.45
4.12
5.11
6.71
8.41
10.3
12.3
15.3
20.1
25.2
8.61
10.3
12.8
16.8
21.0
17.2
20.6
25.5
33.6
42.1
25.8
30.9
38.4
50.3
63.1
58.6
70.0
86.9
114
143
7.75
9.26
11.5
15.1
18.9
3.45
4.12
5.11
6.71
8.41
2.07
2.47
3.07
4.03
5.05
2.58
3.08
3.84
5.03
6.31
10.3
12.3
15.3
20.1
25.2
6
8
10
12
14
6.065
7.981
10.02
11.938
13.124
.015
.014
.014
.013
.013
4.04
5.32
6.68
7.96
8.75
15.2
20.0
25.1
29.8
32.8
8.09
10.6
13.4
15.9
17.5
10.1
13.3
16.7
19.9
21.8
30.3
39.9
50.1
59.7
65.6
25.3
33.3
41.8
49.7
54.7
50.5
33.3
41.8
49.7
54.7
75.8
99.8
125
149
164
172
226
284
338
372
22.7
29.9
29.2
34.8
38.3
10.1
13.3
16.7
19.9
21.8
6.07
7.98
10.0
11.9
13.1
7.58
9.98
12.5
14.9
16.4
30.3
39.9
50.1
59.7
65.6
16
18
20
24
30
15.00
16.876
18.814
22.628
28
.013
.012
.012
0.12
.011
10.0
16.9
12.5
15.1
18.7
37.5
42.2
47.0
56.6
70
20.0
22.5
25.1
30.2
37.3
25.0
28.1
31.4
37.7
46.7
75.0
84.4
94.1
113
140
62.5
70.3
78.4
94.3
117
62.5
70.3
78.4
94.3
188
210
235
283
425
478
533
641
31.3
35.2
39.2
47.1
25.0
28.1
31.4
37.7
46.7
15.0
16.9
18.8
22.6
28
18.8
21.1
23.5
28.3
35
75.0
84.4
94.1
113
140
36
42
48
34
40
46
.011
.010
.010
22.7
26.7
30.7
85
100
115
45.3
53.3
61.3
56.7
66.7
76.7
170
200
230
142
167
192
56.7
66.7
76.7
34
40
46
43
50
58
170
200
230
L/D 8 30 16 20 60 50 1/2" to 6
= 100
24 to 48
=50
150 340   20 12 15 60

# HMB Engineering Unit Converter

HMB Engineering Unit Convertr

## INTRODUCTION

This is an engineering unit converter to give the user quick access to different units. This tool was developed by others and can be found on github.

* Please note that the tool works in only one way, From --> To. Do not use reverse, To --> From, it will not give the required conversion..

# Gas Flow Converter

## INTRODUCTION

This tool converts Gas volume from given conditions to another given conditions.

## THE TOOL

Gas Data Convert From Name, for reference: Molecular weight: Flow Rate (V1, m3/hr): Temperature (T1, C): Pressure (P1, Kpa): Comp. Factor type: Ideal Gas User Input NG Estimation Comp. Factor (Z1): Temperature (T2, C): Pressure (P2, Kpa): Comp. Factor type: Ideal Gas User Input NG Estimation Comp. Factor (Z2): Flow Rae (V2, m3/hr):

# ISOLATION TOOL

## INTRODUCTION

This tool utilizes HSG253 ("The safe isolation of plant and equipment") methodology for selecting ‘baseline’ process isolation standards. It is guidance on the general principles of safe process isolation. The tool can complement, but cannot replace, competent technical judgment and common sense. The reference has a free-to-download, web-friendly version through HSE website.

## THE TOOL

Substance Release Factor Name for reference: Category: 1 2 3 4 5 Working Pressure: Greater than 50 barg Between 10 & 50 barg Less than 10 barg Line Size: Greater than 8" Between 2" & 8" Less than 2" People at Risk: 1 to 2 3 to 10 More than 10 Plant Layout: Remote single items Uncongested plant/Storage Area Congested plant Fire Potential: Easily contained minor fires Minor fire Large fires, Damage, Multiple fatalities Baseline Standard: Baseline Description:

## TOOL FLOWCHART

This is an overview of the use of the selection tool to select a final isolation method. For more information, please refer to HSG253 Appendix 6: Example of a selection tool to establish the ‘baseline standard’ for final isolation. (HSG253 reference is available below - Figure 11 page 59).

## ISOLATION METHODS

This is an overview of the final isolation methods. For more information, please refer to HSG253 Figure 4, Final isolation methods. (HSG253 reference is available below - Figure 4 page 26 and page 64 for the description of the methods).

R: Consider whether the associated risk is acceptable or whether there is a need to further reduce risk by eg risk reduction measures, extending the isolation
envelope, plant shutdown.
I: Positive isolation (Physical disconnection, eg spool removal - Double block, bleed and spade - Single block and bleed and spade).
II: Proved isolation (Double block and bleed, DBB - Double seals in a single valve body with a bleed in between - Single block and bleed, SBB).
III: Non-proved isolation (Double valve - Single valve)

## SUBSTANCE CATEGORY

This is an overview of the appropriate substance category, These are primarily (but not exclusively) based on the classifications given in the Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2005 (CHIP), you may check this. For more information, please refer to HSG253 Table C, Substance category. (HSG253 reference is available below - Table C page 62).

## RELEASE FACTOR

Line size and pressure give a release factor (this reflects the potential rate of release). The options are high (H), medium (M), and low (L). (HSG253 reference is available below - Table D page 63).

## LOCATION FACTOR

Consideration of the location should include numbers at risk, escalation, and damage if a release occurs. Take into account the nature of the possible consequences if the isolation fails, eg vapor cloud explosion (VCE), toxic gas cloud, jet fire with potential for escalation, etc. The options are high (H), medium (M), and low (L). (HSG253 reference is available below - Table E page 63).

## OUTCOME FACTOR

Release factor and location factor give an outcome factor, in the range A-C. (HSG253 reference is available below - Table F page 63).

## BASELINE ISOLATION STANDARD

The substance category and outcome factor give the appropriate baseline standard for final isolation The options are R, I, II, and III. (HSG253 reference is available below - Table G page 64).