How to approach professionals?

Just personal advice based on the many messages I receive.

At one point, you may need to contact a professional for the first time without prior knowledge between both of you. Maybe to ask about something, opinion, or advice. This is totally fine but let’s make this an efficient process for both sides, please send 1 message where you will:-

1-     Introduce yourself and where you work briefly.
2-     Give a brief idea about the topic you are working on, and why you think he is relevant.
3-     Ask your question.
4-     Finally, express gratitude.

A couple more things: -
1-     Don’t send this generic message, do some research about the guy first. To make sure he is the right one and to tailor your approach.
2-     Lower your expectations, nothing here is personal, maybe he even didn’t see the message at all.

Example:
Good Day Mr. Xxx
My name is Xxx I am working as xxx for Xxx company.
Currently, I am working on xxx and I believe that your expertise in xxx could be very helpful to me.
So from your experience, what I can do about xxx? How I can do xxx?
Thank you for your time.
Regards,
Xxx

 

Follow up, if you didn’t receive a reply on the 1st message, for example:-

Good Day Mr. Xxx
Your time is truly appreciated, and I am aware of its limitation, but I look forward to hearing from you.
Regards,
Xxx

Column Sizing Document – by Koch Glitsch

Introduction

This document discusses how to size a column.
- Equations
- Parameters

This is a nice technical bulletin from Koch-Glitsch, for those who are interested in Engineering and Sizing.

 

Sizing Method

Supporting Tool

KG-TOWER is a Tray & Packed Tower Sizing Software Program. This will help in sizing your column.
Download software

Source
https://www.koch-glitsch.com/getattachment/ebcafced-ed20-419a-994b-b05ef37cf682/attachment.aspx

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Safety Moments

I could have save a life that day, but I chose to look the other way. It wasn’t that I didn’t care. I had the time and I was there. But I didn’t want to seem a fool, or argue over a safety rule. I knew he’d done the job before. If I called it wrong he might get sore. The chances didn’t seem that bad. I’ve done the same he knew I had. So I shook my head and walked on by, he knew the risks as well as I. He took the chances, I closed an eye, and with that act I let him die. I could have saved a life that day, but I chose to look the other way. Now ever time I see his wife, I’ll know I could have saved his life. The guilt is something I must bear, but it isn’t something you must share. If you see a risk that others take, that puts their life or health at stake. The question asked or things you say could help them live another day. If you see a risk and walk away, then hope you never have to say. I could have saved a life that day, but I chose to look the other way.
The Process Safety Beacon is a resource aimed at delivering process safety messages to plant operators and other manufacturing personnel. The monthly one-page newsletter covers the breadth of process safety topics.
The U.S. Chemical Safety Board's (CSB) core mission activities include conducting incident investigations; formulating preventive or mitigative recommendations based on investigation findings and advocating for their implementation; issuing reports containing the findings, conclusions, and recommendations arising from incident investigations; and conducting studies on chemical hazards.
This Lessons Learned Database (LLD) was inspired by these observations. Its purpose is simply to raise awareness of major incidents in the process industries, to promote the importance of root cause analysis and to catalyse cross-sector sharing of lessons learned and good practices.
What is decision fatigue? In this video, we will be talking about a topic that many influencers, minimalists, and icons reference when discussing their daily habits. The psychological explanation behind the depletion of decision-making throughout the day is interesting and we will go through several studies about ego depletion, temptations, and choices. I will also mention some tips I have to solve this problem in our daily lives.
The Dräger X-am 2500® was especially developed for use as personal protection. The 1 to 4 gas detector reliably detects combustible gases and vapours, as well as O2, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S. Reliable and fully mature measuring technology, durable sensors and easy handling guarantee a high degree of safety with extremely low operating costs. This video is an animated introduction for the gas detection instrument Dräger X-am 2500. This supplement for the instructions for use and explains the main functions of the instrument. The animation is intended to support the training of users of this gas detector
The Halliburton Life Rules are a set of core factors that affect personal safety that all Halliburton employees know and live by. These are key components for identifying and managing the hazards in our business.
Shell cares about the health and safety of all employees and contractors. The Life-Saving Rules exist in order to do exactly what they say: save lives!
While the setting may be an office environment, the plot (a chain reaction) can occur anywhere.
How to drive a car safely? How to drive a car with an automatic transmission? Safety is everything when it comes to driving. For example, do you know how to drive in winter weather? If you don't feel sure about your driving skills, then watch these 15 secrets from the specialists of defensive driving. The most important rule for when you’re in a drift is not to brake. We mean than blocked wheels don’t let the driver control the car at all. There are only two ways of dealing with drifts, and they are different for each type of drive. We're sure that you know these methods, but we still have a few secrets from the specialists of defensive driving to offer you.

Process Safety Management – PSM

INTRODUCTION

You may have heard some words like HazOp/ LOPA or PSM, ….

You may have no idea about them, so here is the big picture: –

PSM is the big umbrella, PSM refers to Process Safety Management.

HazOp or LOPA  are risk assessment tools, they are part of 1 element of the elements of PSM.

 

PSM

In the beginning, A management system is a formally established and documented set of activities and procedures designed to produce specific results in a consistent manner on a sustainable basis, and a PSM system can be defined in the same way.

 

Here are the two common definitions for PSM,

  1. The Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) defines the PSM as a management system that is focused on prevention of, preparedness for, mitigation of, response to, or restoration from releases of chemicals or energy from a process associated with a facility.
  2. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) defines PSM as a set of interrelated approaches to managing hazards associated with the process industries and is intended to reduce the frequency and severity of incidents resulting from releases of chemicals and other energy sources

 

According to CCPS, PSM has 20 elements, based on 4 pillars. (Pic: https://senwork.com/news/sen-articles/comparision-of-process-safety-management-system-ccps-risk-based-osha-psm/)

 

According to OSHA, PSM has 14 elements. (pic: https://www.ensafe.com/process-safety-management-101/ )

 

Comparison

(Table: https://senwork.com/news/sen-articles/comparision-of-process-safety-management-system-ccps-risk-based-osha-psm/) and (Book: INTRODUCTION TO PROCESS SAFETY FOR UNDERGRADUATES)

 

Entry CCPS OSHA Definition and Description
1 Process safety cultute Do not apply Developing, sustaining, and enhancing the organization’s process safety culture is one of five elements in the Commit to Process Safety Pillar (Foundational Block). Process safety culture has been defined as, “the combination of group values and behaviors that determine the manner in which process safety is managed”1
2 Compliance with Standards Process safety information (PSI) Standards is a system to identify, develop, acquire, evaluate, disseminate, and provide access to applicable standards, codes, regulations, and laws that affect process safety. The standards system addresses both internal and external standards; national and international codes and standards; and local, state, and federal regulations and laws. The system makes this information easily and quickly accessible to potential users. The standards system interacts in some fashion with every RBPS management system element. Knowledge of and conformance to standards helps a company (1) operate and maintain a safe facility, (2) consistently implement process safety practices, and (3) minimize legal liability. The standards system also forms the basis for the standards of Responsible Care used in an audit program to determine management system conformance.
3 Process safety competency Do not apply Developing and maintaining process safety competency encompasses three interrelated actions:

·         Ccontinuouslyy improving knowledge and competency

·         Ensuring that appropriate information is available to people who need it

·         Consistently applying what has been learned.

4 Workforce involvement Employee participation Workforce involvement provides a system for enabling the active participation of company and contractor workers in the design, development, implementation, and continuous improvement of the RBPS management system.
5 Stakeholder Outreach Do not apply Stakeholder outreach is a process for (1) seeking out individuals or organizations that can be or believe they can be affected by company operations and engaging them in a dialogue about process safety, (2) establishing a relationship with community organizations, other companies and professional groups, and local, state, and federal authorities, and (3) providing accurate information about the company and facility’s products, processes, plans, hazards, and risks.
6 Process knowledge management Process safety information (PSI) The knowledge element primarily focuses on information that can easily be recorded in documents, such as
(1) written technical documents and specifications, (2) engineering drawings and calculations, (3) specifications for design, fabrication, and installation of process equipment, and (4) other written documents such as material safety data sheets (MSDSs). The term process knowledge will be used to refer to this collection of information.
7 Hazard Identification & Risk Analysis Process hazard analysis Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis (HIRA) is a collective term that encompasses all activities involved in identifying hazards and evaluating risk at facilities, throughout their life cycle, to make certain that risks to employees, the public, and/or the environment are consistently controlled within the organization’s risk tolerance. These studies typically address three main risk questions to a level of detail commensurate with analysis objectives, life cycle stage, available information, and resources. The three main risk questions are:

·         Hazard – What can go wrong?

·         Consequences – How bad could it be?

·         Likelihood – How often might it happen?

8 Operating Procedures Operating Procedures The RBPS element that ensures proper development, timely maintenance, and consistent use of operating procedures (procedures)
9 Safe Work Practices Operating Procedures
Hot work permit
safe work practices helps control hazards associated with maintenance and other non-routine work
10 Asset Integrity & Reliability Mechanical Integrity Asset integrity, the RBPS element that helps ensure that equipment is properly designed, installed in accordance with specifications, and remains fit for use until it is retired
11 Contractor management Contractors Contractor management is a system of controls to ensure that contracted services support both safe facility operations and the company’s process safety and personal safety performance goals. This element addresses the selection, acquisition, use, and monitoring of such contracted services.
12 Training & Performance Assurance Training Training is practical instruction in job and task requirements and methods. It may be provided in a classroom or workplace, and its objective is to enable workers to meet some minimum initial performance standards, to maintain their proficiency, or to qualify them for promotion to a more demanding position. Performance assurance is the means by which workers demonstrate that they have understood the training and can apply it in practical situations. Performance assurance is an ongoing process to ensure that workers meet performance standards and to identify where additional training is required.
13 Management of Change Management of Change (MOC) The MOC element helps ensure that changes to a process do not inadvertently introduce new hazards or unknowingly increase risk of existing hazards. The MOC element includes a review and authorization process for evaluating proposed adjustments to facility design, operations, organization, or activities prior to implementation to make certain that no unforeseen new hazards are introduced and that the risk of existing hazards to employees, the public, and/or the environment is not unknowingly increased. It also includes steps to help ensure that potentially affected personnel are notified of the change and that pertinent documents, such as procedures, process safety knowledge, and other key information, are kept up–to-date.
14 Operational Readiness Pre-Startup Safety review Ensuring the safe startup of processes over the life of a facility
15 Conduct of Operations Do not apply Conduct of operations (operations) is the execution of operational and management tasks in a deliberate and structured manner. It is also sometimes called “operational discipline” or “formality of operations”, and it is closely tied to an organization’s culture. Conduct of operations institutionalizes the pursuit of excellence in the performance of every task and minimizes variations in performance. Workers at every level are expected to perform their duties with alertness, due thought, full knowledge, sound judgment, and a proper sense of pride and accountability.
16 Emergency Management Emergency Planing and Response Emergency management includes: (1) planning for possible emergencies, (2) providing resources to execute the plan, (3) practicing and continuously improving the plan, (4) training or informing employees, contractors, neighbors, and local authorities on what to do, how they will be notified, and how to report an emergency, and (5) effectively communicating with stakeholders in the event an incident does occur.
17 Incident Investigation Incident Investigation Incident investigation is a process for reporting, tracking, and investigating incidents that includes: (1) a formal process for investigating incidents, including staffing, performing, documenting, and tracking investigations of process safety incidents and (2) the trending of incident and incident investigation data to identify recurring incidents. This process also manages the resolution and documentation of recommendations generated by the investigations.
18 Measurements and Metrics Do not apply The metrics element establishes performance and efficiency indicators to monitor the near-real-time effectiveness of the RBPS management system and its constituent elements and work activities
19 Auditing Compliance Audits The audits element is intended to evaluate whether management systems are performing as intended. It complements other RBPS control and monitoring activities in elements such as management review, metrics, and inspection work activities that are part of the asset integrity and conduct of operations elements.
20 Management Review and Continuous Improvement Do not apply Management review is the routine evaluation of whether management systems are performing as intended and producing the desired results as efficiently as possible. It is the ongoing “due diligence” review by management that fills the gap between day-to-day work activities and periodic formal audits. Management review is similar to a doctor giving a routine physical examination – even when no overt signs of illness are present, life-threatening conditions may be developing that are best addressed proactively. Management reviews have many of the characteristics of a 1st party audit as described previously. They require a similar system for scheduling, staffing, and effectively evaluating all RBPS elements, and a system should be in place for implementing any resulting plans for improvement or corrective action and verifying their effectiveness.

 

HAZOP Vs. LOPA

There are many risk assessment tools, they are part of Hazard Identification & Risk or Analysis Process hazard analysis Element of PSM. the following table summarizes these tools.

REFERENCES

Click to access osha3132.pdf

Corrosion

Introduction

This document discusses corrosion.
- Types
- Material Selection

This is a nice technical bulletin from Swagelok, for those who are interested in corrosion.

 

Source

https://www.swagelok.com/en/toolbox/material-selection-guide/

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Pump Sizing Document – by AICHE

Introduction

This document discusses how to size a pump.
- Equations
- Parameters

This is a nice technical bulletin from AICHE, for those who are interested in Engineering and Sizing.

 

Supporting Tool

Line Sizing Tool is a tool to calculate the pressure drop and velocity through piping. This will help in sizing your pump.
http://hassanelbanhawi.com/SpreadSheetsTools/HMBLineSizing.html

 

Cited References

  1. Perry, R. H., and Green, D. W., “Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook,” 8th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, p. 6-18 (2007).
  2. Moran, S., “An Applied Guide to Process and Plant Design,” Butterworth-Heinemann Oxford, U.K. (2015).
  3. Genić, S., et al., “A Review of Explicit Approximations of Colebrook’s Equation,” FME Transactions,39, pp. 67–71 (June 2011).
  4. Zigrang, D. J., and N. D. Sylvester, “Explicit Approximations to the Solution of Colebrook’s Friction Factor Equation,” AIChE Journal,28 (3), pp. 514–515 (May 1982).
  5. Haaland, S. E., “Simple and Explicit Formulas for the Friction Factor in Turbulent Flow,” Journal of Fluids Engineering,105 (1), pp. 89–90 (1983).
  6. Huddleston, D., et al., “A Spreadsheet Replacement for Hardy--Cross Piping System Analysis in Undergraduate Hydraulics,” Critical Transitions in Water and Environmental Resources Management, pp. 1–8 (2004).

 

Source

https://www.aiche.org/resources/publications/cep/2016/december/pump-sizing-bridging-gap-between-theory-and-practice

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Rupture Disc Sizing Document – by Fike

Introduction

This document discusses how to size a rupture disc.
- Equations
- Parameters

This is a nice technical bulletin from Fike, for those who are interested in Engineering and Sizing.

 

Cited References
1. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division 1
2. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, PTC25
3. American Petroleum Institute, RP520
4. Crane Valves, Technical Paper 410
5. Crane Valves, Crane Companion Computer Program
6. Fike Technical Bulletin TB8100 ASME Code and Rupture Discs
7. Fike Technical Bulletin TB8103 Certified Combination Capacity Factors
8. Fike Technical Bulletin TB8104 Certified KR and MNFA Values
9. Fike Technical Bulletin TB8105 Best Practices for RD & PRV Combinations
10. DIERS Project Manual
11. CCPS Guidelines for Pressure Relief Effluent Handling Systems

 

Source

https://www.fike.com/en_gb/knowledge-center/product-literature/rupture-disc-sizing/

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Flow, Pressure Drop, K, Cv, Kv Converters








INTRODUCTION

These are 6 tools to help in fluid flow simulation.

1- Pressure Drop (dP) Calculator

Given Flow, Density, Diameter, K fitting
Flow Rate (Kg/hr):
Density (kg/m3):
Inside Diameter (mm):
K fitting:
Pressure Drop (bar):

  

2- K Fitting Calculator

Given Flow, Density, Diameter, Pressure Drop
Flow Rate (Kg/hr):
Density (kg/m3):
Inside Diameter (mm):
Pressure Drop (bar):
K fitting:

  

3- Flow (F) Calculator

Given Density, Diameter, Pressure Drop, K Fitting
Density (kg/m3):
Inside Diameter (mm):
Pressure Drop (bar):
K fitting:
Flow Rate (Kg/hr):

  

4- Cv to K & Kv Converter

Inside Diameter (mm):
Flow Coefficient (Cv):
Resistance coefficient (K):
Resistance coefficient (Kv):

5- K to Cv & Kv Converter

Inside Diameter (mm):
Resistance Coefficient (K):
Flow coefficient (Cv):
Resistance coefficient (Kv):

6- Kv to Cv & K Converter

Inside Diameter (mm):
Flow Coefficient (Kv):
Flow coefficient (Cv):
Resistance coefficient (K):

Friction Loss Tables

Source:- https://www.plumbingsupply.com/ed-frictionlosses.html

Friction Losses in
Pipe Fittings
Resistance Coefficient K (use in formula hf = Kv2/2g)
Fitting LD Nominal Pipe Size
1/2" 3/4" 1 1-1/4" 1-1/2" 2 2-1/2"-3 4 6 8-10 12-16 18-24
K Value
Angle Valve 55 1.48 1.38 1.27 1.21 1.16 1.05 0.99 0.94 0.83 0.77 0.72 0.66
Angle Valve 150 4.05 3.75 3.45 3.30 3.15 2.85 2.70 2.55 2.25 2.10 1.95 1.80
Ball Valve 3 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04
Butterfly Valve             0.86 0.81 0.77 0.68 0.63 0.35 0.30
Gate Valve 8 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.18 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.10
Globe Valve 340 9.2 8.5 7.8 7.5 7.1 6.5 6.1 5.8 5.1 4.8 4.4 4.1
Plug Valve Branch Flow 90 2.43 2.25 2.07 1.98 1.89 1.71 1.62 1.53 1.35 1.26 1.17 1.08
Plug Valve Straightaway 18 0.48 0.45 0.41 0.40 0.38 0.34 0.32 0.31 0.27 0.25 0.23 0.22
Plug Valve 3-Way Thru-Flow 30 0.81 0.75 0.69 0.66 0.63 0.57 0.54 0.51 0.45 0.42 0.39 0.36
Standard Elbow 90° 30 0.81 0.75 0.69 0.66 0.63 0.57 0.54 0.51 0.45 0.42 0.39 0.36
45° 16 0.43 0.40 0.37 0.35 0.34 0.30 0.29 0.27 0.24 0.22 0.21 0.19
long radius
90°
16 0.43 0.40 0.37 0.35 0.34 0.30 0.29 0.27 0.24 0.22 0.21 0.19
Close Return Bend 50 1.35 1.25 1.15 1.10 1.05 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60
Standard Tee Thru-Flow 20 0.54 0.50 0.46 0.44 0.42 0.38 0.36 0.34 0.30 0.28 0.26 0.24
Thru-Branch 60 1.62 1.50 1.38 1.32 1.26 1.14 1.08 1.02 0.90 0.84 0.78 0.72
90 Bends,
Pipe Bends,
Flanged Elbows,
Butt-Welded
Elbows
r/d=1 20 0.54 0.50 0.46 0.44 0.42 0.38 0.36 0.34 0.30 0.28 0.26 0.24
r/d=2 12 0.32 0.30 0.28 0.26 0.25 0.23 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.14
r/d=3 12 0.32 0.30 0.28 0.26 0.25 0.23 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.14
r/d=4 14 0.38 0.35 0.32 0.31 0.29 0.27 0.25 0.24 0.21 0.20 0.18 0.17
r/d=6 17 0.46 0.43 0.39 0.37 0.36 0.32 0.31 0.29 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.20
r/d=8 24 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.53 0.50 0.46 0.43 0.41 0.36 0.34 0.31 0.29
r/d=10 30 0.81 0.75 0.69 0.66 0.63 0.57 0.54 0.51 0.45 0.42 0.39 0.36
r/d=12 34 0.92 0.85 0.78 0.75 0.71 0.65 0.61 0.58 0.51 0.48 0.44 0.41
r/d=14 38 1.03 0.95 0.87 0.84 0.80 0.72 0.68 0.65 0.57 0.53 0.49 0.46
r/d=16 42 1.13 1.05 0.97 0.92 0.88 0.80 0.76 0.71 0.63 0.59 0.55 0.50
r/d=18 45 1.24 1.15 1.06 1.01 0.97 0.87 0.83 0.78 0.69 0.64 0.60 0.55
r/d=20 50 1.35 1.25 1.15 1.10 1.05 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60
Mitre Bends a=0° 2 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02
a=15° 4 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05
a=30° 8 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.10
a=45° 15 0.41 0.38 0.35 0.33 0.32 0.29 0.27 0.26 0.23 0.21 0.20 0.18
a=60° 25 0.68 0.63 0.58 0.55 0.53 0.48 0.45 0.43 0.38 0.35 0.33 0.30
a=75° 40 1.09 1.00 0.92 0.88 0.84 0.76 0.72 0.68 0.60 0.56 0.52 0.48
a=90° 60 1.62 1.50 1.38 1.32 1.26 1.14 1.08 1.02 0.90 0.84 0.78 0.72
Note: Fittings are standard
with full openings.

Fitting L/D Minimum
Velocity for
Full Disc Lift
Nominal Pipe Size
1/2" 3/4" 1 1-1/4" 1-1/2" 2 2-1/2"-3 4 6 8-10 12-16 18-24
General
ft/sec
Water
ft/sec
K Value
Swing Check Valve 100 35 4.40 2.70 2.50 2.30 2.20 2.10 1.90 1.80 1.70 1.50 1.40 1.30 1.20
50 48 6.06 1.40 1.30 1.20 1.10 1.10 1.00 0.90 0.90 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60
Lift Check Valve 600 40 5.06 16.2 15.0 13.08 13.2 12.6 11.4 10.8 10.2 9.0 8.4 7.8 7.2
55 140 17.7 1.50 1.40 1.30 1.20 1.20 1.10 1.00 0.94 0.83 0.77 0.72 0.66
Tilting Disc Check Valve 5 80 10.13           0.76 0.72 0.68 0.60 0.56 0.39 0.24
15 30 3.80           2.30 2.20 2.00 1.80 1.70 1.20 0.72
Foot Valve with Strainer
Poppet Disc
420 15 1.90 11.3 10.5 9.70 9.30 8.80 8.00 7.60 7.10 6.30 5.90 5.50 5.0
Foot Valve with Strainer
Hinged Disc
75 35 4.43 2.00 1.90 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.40 1.40 1.30 1.10 1.10 1.00 0.90

Fitting Description All Pipe Sizes
K Value
Pipe Exit Projecting
Sharp-Edged
Rounded
1.00
Pipe Entrance Inward Projecting 0.78
Pipe Entrance Flush Sharp-Edged 0.50
r/d=0.02 0.28
r/d=0.04 0.24
r/d=0.06 0.15
r/d=0.10 0.09
r/d<0.14 0.04

The K values given below are for making estimates of friction loss in
cases not covered in the previous tables.

Type of Fitting K Value
Disk or Wobble Meter 3.4 - 10
Rotary Meter (Star or Cog-Wheel Piston) 10
Reciprocating Piston Meter 15
Turbine Wheel (Double-Flow) Meter 5 - 7.5
Bends w/Corrugated Inner Radius 1.3 - 1.6 times value for smooth bend
Example: Determine L
(friction loss in pipe fittings in terms of equivalent length
in feet of straight pipe).
Assume a 6" angle valve for Schedule 40 pipe size.
Select the appropriate K value for such and select D and f for Schedule 40 pipe
from the table below where K is the pipe diameter in feet.
Pipe Size
Inches
Sch. 40
D
feet
f Pipe Size
Inches
Sch. 40
D
feet
f Pipe Size
Inches
Sch. 40
D
feet
f Pipe Size
Inches
Sch. 40
D
feet
f
1/2"
3/4"
1
1-1/4"
1-1/2"
2
0.0518
0.0687
0.0874
0.1150
0.1342
0.1723
0.027
0.025
0.023
0.022
0.021
0.019
2-1/2"
3
4
5
6
8
0.2058
0.2557
0.3355
0.4206
0.5054
0.6651
0.018
0.018
0.017
0.016
0.015
0.014
10
12
14
16
18
20
0.8350
0.9948
1.0937
1.250
1.4063
1.5678
0.014
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.012
0.012
24
30
36
42
48
1.8857
2.3333
2.8333
3.3333
3.8333
0.012
0.011
0.011
0.010
0.010

Friction Loss of Water in
Pipe Fittings in Terms of Equivalent

Length - Feet of Straight Pipe
Nominal
pipe size
Actual
inside
diameter
inches
d
Friction
factor
f
Gate
valve
-
full
open
90°
elbow
Long
radius
90° or
45° sth
elbow
Sth
tee
-
thru
flow
Sth
tee
-
branch
flow
Close
return
bend
Swing
check
valve
-
full open
Angle
valve
-
full
open
Globe
valve
-
full
valve
Butter-
fly valve
90°Welding
elbow
Mitre bend
r/d = 1 r/d = 2 45° 90°
1/2"
3/4"
1
1-1/4"
1-1/2"
.622
.824
1.049
1.380
1.610
.027
.025
.023
.022
.021
.41
.55
.70
.92
1.07
1.55
2.06
2.62
3.45
4.03
.83
1.10
1.40
1.84
2.15
1.04
1.37
1.75
2.30
2.68
3.11
4.12
5.25
6.90
8.05
2.59
3.43
4.37
5.75
6.71
5.18
6.86
8.74
11.5
13.4
7.78
10.3
13.1
17.3
20.1
17.6
23.3
29.7
39.1
45.6
         
2
2-1/2"
3
4
5
2.067
2.469
3.068
4.026
5.047
.019
.018
.018
.017
.016
1.38
1.65
2.04
2.68
3.36
5.17
6.17
7.67
10.1
12.6
2.76
3.29
4.09
5.37
6.73
3.45
4.12
5.11
6.71
8.41
10.3
12.3
15.3
20.1
25.2
8.61
10.3
12.8
16.8
21.0
17.2
20.6
25.5
33.6
42.1
25.8
30.9
38.4
50.3
63.1
58.6
70.0
86.9
114
143
7.75
9.26
11.5
15.1
18.9
3.45
4.12
5.11
6.71
8.41
2.07
2.47
3.07
4.03
5.05
2.58
3.08
3.84
5.03
6.31
10.3
12.3
15.3
20.1
25.2
6
8
10
12
14
6.065
7.981
10.02
11.938
13.124
.015
.014
.014
.013
.013
4.04
5.32
6.68
7.96
8.75
15.2
20.0
25.1
29.8
32.8
8.09
10.6
13.4
15.9
17.5
10.1
13.3
16.7
19.9
21.8
30.3
39.9
50.1
59.7
65.6
25.3
33.3
41.8
49.7
54.7
50.5
33.3
41.8
49.7
54.7
75.8
99.8
125
149
164
172
226
284
338
372
22.7
29.9
29.2
34.8
38.3
10.1
13.3
16.7
19.9
21.8
6.07
7.98
10.0
11.9
13.1
7.58
9.98
12.5
14.9
16.4
30.3
39.9
50.1
59.7
65.6
16
18
20
24
30
15.00
16.876
18.814
22.628
28
.013
.012
.012
0.12
.011
10.0
16.9
12.5
15.1
18.7
37.5
42.2
47.0
56.6
70
20.0
22.5
25.1
30.2
37.3
25.0
28.1
31.4
37.7
46.7
75.0
84.4
94.1
113
140
62.5
70.3
78.4
94.3
117
62.5
70.3
78.4
94.3
188
210
235
283
425
478
533
641
31.3
35.2
39.2
47.1
25.0
28.1
31.4
37.7
46.7
15.0
16.9
18.8
22.6
28
18.8
21.1
23.5
28.3
35
75.0
84.4
94.1
113
140
36
42
48
34
40
46
.011
.010
.010
22.7
26.7
30.7
85
100
115
45.3
53.3
61.3
56.7
66.7
76.7
170
200
230
142
167
192
        56.7
66.7
76.7
34
40
46
43
50
58
170
200
230
L/D 8 30 16 20 60 50 1/2" to 6
= 100
24 to 48
=50
150 340   20 12 15 60

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HMB Engineering Unit Converter








HMB Engineering Unit Convertr

INTRODUCTION

This is an engineering unit converter to give the user quick access to different units. This tool was developed by others and can be found on github.

* Please note that the tool works in only one way, From --> To. Do not use reverse, To --> From, it will not give the required conversion..

THE TOOL










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Gas Flow Converter

INTRODUCTION

This tool converts Gas volume from given conditions to another given conditions.

THE TOOL

Gas Data
Name, for reference:
Molecular weight:
     
Convert From
Flow Rate (V1, m3/hr):
Temperature (T1, C):
Pressure (P1, Kpa):
Comp. Factor type:
Comp. Factor (Z1):
     
Convert to
Temperature (T2, C):
Pressure (P2, Kpa):
Comp. Factor type:
Comp. Factor (Z2):
     
Result:
Flow Rae (V2, m3/hr):

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